Online reservation system conceptual and research literature synthesis theoretical and conceptual fr

Critics of such assumptions about savings in overhead costs argue that they are simplistic, and that the cost-allocation models exaggerate prospective savings because some expenditures on overhead such as those for system planning, advertising, and marketing are unavoidable or correlated only weakly with the actual amount of transit service provided by a transit agency see Sclar and Watkins For instance, key product qualities may not be apparent to either or both parties, or these qualities may be difficult to evaluate and measure.

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The advantage of the free sale for the tour operator is that the free sale does not require minimum sales and the tour operator shows availability in the system without considerable financial commitments.

Additionally, some Global Distribution Systems e. Despite sufficient, the information must also be transparent. With the help of the reference number and the access code, the client could see the status of the booking online and eventually make changes in it.

The early cost-saving studies have been criticized not only for assuming that contracting would have large effects in reducing overhead costs, but also for not anticipating administrative and other costs incurred by contracting. Studies on Cost Savings The early UMTA-sponsored studies revealed that contracting, when accompanied by vigorous competition, led to reduced operating costs due to 1 less compensation for operating personnel; 2 more flexibility in the use of labor as a result of fewer work rules and greater ability to use part-time operators; 3 more efficient vehicle maintenance procedures, such as management of parts inventory; and 4 streamlined management and administration cost in general see, e.

For instance, the RFP will often describe the basis for payments i. Respondents to the RFP are not expected to propose alternatives to these specifications, but they may do so if they wish.

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If an agent has the right to issue such documents, it is usually done within a contracted credit limit — the total money value of bookings with issued vouchers and outstanding payments due to the owner of the system. In B2C systems, the sales promotion is a much harder task, because theoretically users are all people who have access to internet. Public transit agencies are parties to both complete and incomplete contracts. OHRSs are designed to serve every customer or agent and therefore have a standardised interface. They usually contract for equipment, parts, fuel, and other commodity-like products using complete contracts that specify the deliverable and a specific time of delivery. In many instances, such anticipated benefits may be secondary to savings in operating costs as reasons for contracting, yet for some agencies, especially smaller ones with limited administrative capabilities, they can be a main motivation for contracting as indicated by the survey results. Net or commissionable rates Most of the B2B and all B2C systems offer net rates without commission , so that the user of the system can see the exact amount due without additional calculations. Likewise, there may be uncertainty about other pertinent factors during the period of the contract. Suppliers might have full access to the database management function, to the preparation of and issuing travel and booking related documents and to the handling of payments as this facilitates the reservation and accounting process and updating the information in the system. This has been widely acknowledged by tourism practitioners. The contractual relationship is therefore shaped and disciplined largely by the marketplace. An empirical survey undertaken by Udo and Marquis shows that an effective website design must have short download time, easy navigation, use graphics that do not take too long to load, use animations that are not distracting, must be highly interactive and careful with the use of frames, choice of grammar and colour combination and shows high degree of cohesion and consistency throughout the pages. If a contractual conflict cannot be resolved through market mechanisms, the parties can seek relief through the courts. Despite sufficient, the information must also be transparent. Trust is an essential feature in the model because it determines whether direct customers and agents will use the OHRS at all for further discussion on trust in e- commerce and websites see Hoffman, Novak and Peralta , Jarvenpaa, Trackinsky and Vitale , Urban, Sultan and Qualls

While the former processes may entail less specification writing, they typically require more complex evaluation Page 50 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"3. Another study by Lim reveals the designer has to follow a sequential progression, mimic real-life scripts, provide visual indicators, place functionality above aesthetics and avoid conditioning automatic actions in order to enhance the usability of online store interfaces.

Because of the practical difficulties associated with specifying, monitoring, and enforcing all aspects of service, public transit managers may place a high value on being able to trust the service provider.

It may be incomplete because aspects of the deliverable, such as the quality of service to be provided, cannot be defined or measured precisely.

Online reservation system conceptual and research literature synthesis theoretical and conceptual fr

These costs can be episodic, occurring each time a contract is rebid, although to differing degrees each time. It is obvious that the internal users have full access to the system, although different employees might have different access rights to the administration of the system. The reservation system will increase its value to the customer if it can be integrated with other systems see next section of the paper which can be achieved if only the software of the system is compatible with the software of other systems. Likewise, the agency may elect to contract in order to avoid certain administrative costs, such as the time and expense associated with personnel management. Business-to-business B2B or business-to-consumer B2C reservation system For us this is the main problem as its solution predetermines the other marketing decisions in the OHRS design process. If the supplier does not perform as set forth in the contract, the buyer can opt for another supplier. Referring back to Figure 1 and Table 1 we can firmly state, that the more functions and activities the online hotel reservation system performs, the higher its utility for clients, agents, suppliers and internal users is, and the higher its competitive advantage is over other systems. Usually, after reservation the client receives an automatically generated e-mail with the reference number of the booking and not always an access code, valid for this particular booking e. As a result of the smaller number of users, payments are also easier — once a month or another time base. Even if the hotelier eventually closes for sale some of the rooms in the allotment because of repair works, force majeur, special events or others, he informs the tour operator earlier enough to allow him to make necessary amendments in his own contracts and reservation system. This means that the OHRS should offer enough properties in order to attract traffic and to satisfy the booking queries of its users, to offer prices lower than competitors for the same or similar hotels. In this way, the system gains a significant competitive advantage, albeit its limited scope of offered hotels. Because of the practical difficulties associated with specifying, monitoring, and enforcing all aspects of service, public transit managers may place a high value on being able to trust the service provider.

The advantage of the allotment for the tour operator is that he guarantees available rooms within the allotment regardless of the occupation level of the rest of the rooms in the hotel.

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Conceptual and theoretical framework