Literature review of motivational interviewing
Applying single-disease guidelines to multimorbidity is costly, increases polypharmacy, and involves prescription of unrealistic daily self-care activities [ 1314 ]. Medication adherence may also be important, given its impact on chronic condition management [ 2526 ].
Such an approach is predicated on the notion that an outcome occurs as a result of some events or interventionbut there is a need to understand the generative mechanism that brings about the outcome in a particular context.
Abstracts were reviewed to determine whether a publication met the criteria for a systematic review or meta-analysis and if MI was an intervention included in the analysis. This systematic review has three objectives.
Literature review of motivational interviewing
In the case of Motivational Interviewing issues relating to monitoring and reporting fidelity of interventions need to be addressed. Furthermore, the likelihood of multimorbidity increased with each additional unhealthy lifestyle factor [ 24 ]. Thus, adolescence is a critical period for introducing interventions to halt problematic behaviors and reduce the risk of poor health outcomes or chronic disease in adulthood [ 41 ]. MI has been found to have a small-to-medium effect across settings and a range of target behaviours [ 33 , 37 — 40 ]. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. With its emphasis on the individual patient and focus on health-behaviour change, Fortin and colleagues suggest that motivational interviewing MI may be a useful intervention for the lifestyle factors impacting on multimorbidity [ 24 ]. Data extraction Effect size data were extracted for the overall efficacy of MI, as well as for alcohol, smoking cessation, diet and exercise, medication adherence, and weight interventions. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Reviews focused on combined psychological interventions e. See Appendix 1 for Medline search. One reviewer HF checked the data entry. Research in the area of health behavior interventions for adolescents, specifically those related to obesity and diabetes, is relatively new [ 41 ]. This has been accompanied by an increase in the publication of primary research [ 31 ] and systematic reviews of MI [ 32 — 37 ]. The search identified abstracts, of which 28 were included in the review. The tool covers four domains to detect bias in systematic reviews relating to study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; synthesis and findings.
This systematic review identifies research papers of MI in healthcare where authors have used systematic review methodology to identify primary intervention trials and have also conducted a meta-analysis.
Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effectiveness of MI for health behaviors and found that it is an effective intervention for diet, exercise, obesity, and diabetes among adults [ 121314151631 ].
Some reviews report positive outcomes for Motivational Interviewing and suggest it could be useful for a wide range of behavioural and health problems [ 6 — 9 ] whilst others are more cautious in their conclusions and recommendations [ 10 — 12 ].
Two reviewers PC and HF independently reviewed the abstracts of all potential records identified from the electronic searches and excluded those not meeting the inclusion criteria.
The full result of assessment of bias aids transparency and aims to help researchers judge risk of bias in the review process, results and conclusions.
Stages of motivational interviewing
Expert consensus recommendations emphasize supporting behaviour change to address lifestyle factors [ 19 , 21 — 23 ]. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Epidemiological research has found high prevalence rates for multimorbidity [ 2 — 4 ]. Information about the health conditions included in each review was extracted from summary tables and a review of the titles of trials included in each meta-analysis. Additionally, implications for practice and further research in relation to the impact of MI and MI-via-CACL as interventions to positive behavior change in adolescents are addressed. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Rather a realist review aims to explore the process and contextual factors that play a role in the effectiveness or efficacy of an intervention [ Uncertainty about inclusion of articles was resolved through discussion with the review team at regular meetings. Reviews were only included if participants were recruited from healthcare services, not criminal justice, education, or other sectors. Based on the Transtheoretical Model TTM , individuals are at various points along this continuum of readiness to change [ 27 , 28 , 29 ]. These outcomes include reducing binge drinking, frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, substance abuse in people with dependency or addiction, and increasing physical activity participation. We used the GRADE Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria to assess whether the quality of the evidence presented in the meta-analyses was high, moderate, low or very low [ 16 ] for all available comparator data within each review. In the case of Motivational Interviewing issues relating to monitoring and reporting fidelity of interventions need to be addressed.
based on 12 review