She also used religion to support her claim to the throne, claiming to be the daughter of the Sun-God, an ancient royal title. Whether Caesar was the father of Caesarion, as his name implies, cannot now be known.
The year-old Cleopatra, older than her brother by about eight years, became the dominant ruler. The only member of her house to learn Egyptian, she was said to be a popular ruler.
The rumour quickly spread that Antony also intended to transfer the capital from Rome to Alexandria. Three years later Ptolemy returned to Egypt. That he was already married to Calpurnia yet Cleopatra claimed to be his wife added to political tensions in Rome that ended with Caesar's assassination in 44 BCE.
He ordered both Ptolemy and Cleopatra to meet with him to discuss a peace treaty.
Still, unreliable flooding of the Nile resulted in failing crops, leading to inflation and hunger. Her story has inspired poets, dramatists, and artists for more than 2, years. According to the story recorded by Plutarch and later dramatized famously by William ShakespeareCleopatra sailed to Tarsus in an elaborate ship, dressed in the robes of Isis.
Even though the army assembled by Antony and Cleopatra was larger, the famous battle of Actium in September of 31 BCE constituted a first fundamental step toward their defeat. Through cunning and guile, she survived to rule Egypt as all of her siblings perished by the wayside.